Chapter 2: Python Basics – Your Launchpad into the World of Python Programming

Python Programming
Python Programming

Python Syntax and Structure

Python, with its uncluttered visual layout and English-like syntax, revolutionizes readability in programming. To understand this language, let’s first dive into Python’s syntax and structure:

Lines and Indentation: 

Python employs indentation to distinguish blocks of code. For instance:

if 5 > 2:
    print("Five is greater than two!")

In this example, the line print(“Five is greater than two!”) is a part of the if block since it’s indented under the if statement.


Comments are preceded by the # symbol, enabling programmers to include human-readable explanations in their code.

# This is a comment in Python
print("Hello, Python!")  # This line prints "Hello, Python!"


Statements are instructions that Python can execute. Here, a = 1 is a simple assignment statement.

a = 1  # This is an assignment statement

Variables and Data Types

Variables are the backbone of any programming language. In Python, a variable gets created as soon as you assign a value to it. For instance:

x = 5  # Here 'x' is a variable storing the integer 5

Python supports a variety of data types:


Python provides support for various numerical types – integer, float, and complex.

a = 5  # This is an integer type
b = 5.0  # This is a float type
c = 5 + 3j  # This is a complex type


Strings are sequences of characters in Python, enclosed in either single quotes (‘ ‘) or double quotes (” “).

s = "This is a string in Python"


Lists are mutable ordered sequences of items, defined within square brackets [].

fruits = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]  # This is a list


Tuples, similar to lists, are ordered sequences of items. The crucial difference is that tuples, denoted by parentheses (), are immutable.

fruits_tuple = ("apple", "banana", "cherry")  # This is a tuple


A dictionary, encapsulated by {}, is an unordered collection of key-value pairs.

fruits_dict = {"apple": 1, "banana": 2, "cherry": 3}  # This is a dictionary

Operators and Expressions

Operators are symbols that perform specific operations on one or more operands. Python supports various types of operators:

Arithmetic Operators:

+, -, *, /, %, **, //.

a = 10
b = 20
print(a+b)  # Prints 30

Comparison Operators:

 ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=.

a = 10
b = 20
print(a == b)  # Prints False

Logical Operators:

and, or, not.

a = True
b = False
print(a and b)  # Prints False

An expression in Python is a combination of values, variables, operators, and calls to functions. For example:

a = 10
b = 20
c = a + b  # Here, a + b is an expression and c stores the result, i.e., 30

Input and Output in Python

Python provides the input() function for taking user input and the print() function to display output:

name = input("Enter your name: ")  # Takes user input
print("Hello, " + name + "!")  # Prints greeting with user's name

Control Flow Statements

Control flow statements help Python decide which instructions to execute under which conditions:

If-else Statements:

 ‘if’ statements execute a specific block of code if a provided condition is true. If the condition is not met, the ‘else’ block executes.

a = 10
b = 20
if a > b:
    print("a is greater than b")
    print("b is greater than a")

For Loops: 

‘for’ loops iterate over a sequence or other iterable objects.

for i in range(5):
    print(i)  # This prints numbers 0 to 4

While Loops:

A ‘while’ loop executes a block of code as long as the given condition is true.

i = 0
while i < 5:
    i += 1  # This prints numbers 0 to 4

There you have it! A simple guide to Python basics. While it’s just scratching the surface, these concepts are fundamental to Python programming. Understanding them paves the way for advanced topics. Enjoy your Python journey!

Python, with its simple syntax, extensive libraries, and wide applications, is a go-to language for beginners and experts alike. Understanding Python’s basics, like data types, control structures, and functions, lays the foundation for advanced coding. Embrace Python’s motto of “simple is better than complex,” and enjoy your journey in coding!

Chapter 2: Python Basics – Your Launchpad into the World of Python Programming
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